Rugby Virginia FULL PLAYING LAWS - TACKLE

Rugby Virginia FULL PLAYING LAWS - TACKLE (CONTACT) RUGBY
  • Law Clarification, Questions and Answers

     

    In Rugby Virginia we play Tackle (Contact) Rugby for players U13 (age: 11) and up. Players and match officials must endeavor to ensure the IRB Laws of the Game, modified by the following RUVA Mods, are observed when playing Tackle (Contact) Rugby. The following Rules of Play for Rugby Virginia, Tackle (Contact) Rugby were derived from existing International Rugby Board (IRB) Laws and are consistent with the spirit of the Game as defined under the Law and established regulation. These Rules of Play are intended to expound upon, better define, or state exception(s) specific to the rules under which the Rugby Virginia (RUVA) Summer Youth program is played, based upon recognized IRB Law and Under-19 variations that govern the Game.

     

    Object:

     

    The object of the game is to score tries (five points), conversions (two points). If posts are properly positioned in the playing area then drop goals and penalty kicks (three points) may also be scored. A penalty try will be awarded if a try would probably have been scored but for foul play by the defending team. For the younger age groups, where score is kept; we will simply record the number of tries scored by each team.

     

    Teams:

     

    Based upon availability of players (respective to the Age group), the Tackle game is normally played between teams having at least eleven (or seven) players, and at least five (or three) of whom will be forwards and form the scrum, with the remaining players forming the back line.

     

    Certain exceptions are arbitrated each year, such as U17 & Girls who will usually play 7 a-side. The ideal would be to play with at least eleven players, and consideration for aspiring to meet the spirit of a greater number of players will be considered annually by member clubs, and the feasible number of players set by a majority vote. The intent is to emulate full-15/side competition, to the greatest extent possible within all age groups.

     

    If decided upon to play with fewer total number of players, Scrums MUST be matched. Consideration for 3-man Scrum would allow for a proportional amount of Forwards and Backs.

     

    Each team can have an agreed number of substitutes. Substituted players can be re-used at any time. Substitutions may only take place when the ball is dead or at half time and always with the referee‟s knowledge.

     

    Based upon match day availability, teams may agree to lend players to the Opposing side to meet at least the 11 a-side ideal, and should do so to the greatest extent possible. Playing with fewer than 11 a-side must be agreed to by both teams (under the provisions above), and should be done only as necessary.

     

    Field size, rugby balls and playing time:

    http://www.rugbyva.org/docs_pdf/RUVA%20Guidelines_Fieldsize_Playingtime.pdf

     

    Scheduled occasion of progressive introduction of skills:
    (follow this schedule for the introduction of skills to fully benefit from the rugby experience)

    ·         By the first scheduled match in June:
    1) Players must be able to perform restarts: that is: drop kicks for kick-off and restarts. No kicking tees are allowed.
    2) Penalty kicks: understand the laws relating to penalties; and avoiding same. Players also need to know how to play penalty kicks awarded to them.
    3) Players need to be capable of performing: Scrums (uncontested)
       >> Scrum: semi-contested: 1st Saturday match in July
       >> Scrum: contested: 2nd scheduled match July
    4) Players need to be capable of performing: Line-outs (no lifting)
       >> Lineouts: lifting permitted: 1st Saturday match in July
    5) Players need to be capable of performing: Mauls
    6) Players need to be capable of performing: Rucks
    7) Players need to be capable of performing: "22" drop-out

    ·         By the first scheduled Saturday match in July:
    1) Players need to be capable of performing: Mark and Free-Kick
    2) Players need to be capable of performing: Scrum (as above): semi-contested
    3) Players need to be capable of performing: Lineouts (as above): lifting permitted

    ·         By the second scheduled match in July:
    1) Players need to be capable of performing: Scrum (as above): contested
    2) All skills/formations/variations



    Starts / Re-starts:

     

    The decision for which team will kick-off will be determined by coin toss preceding the start of the match (per IRB Law/regulation). Kick-off will alternate at halftime.

     

    (a) A drop-kick from the center of the half-way line is used to start the game, the second half, and for all restarts after a score. The kicker’s team must be behind the ball and the receiving team must be at least ten meters away from mid-field line until ball has been kicked. Should a team not have a player who can successfully execute a drop-kick, then a player from the kicker’s team may hold the ball to allow for a place kick from the ground. No kicking tees are to be used for restart kicks.

    (b) After a score the team that scored kicks off.

    (c) If, from the kick-off, the ball is kicked directly into touch, the opposition has the choice of:

    the kick-off being taken again; or

    the throw-in to a scrum at the center of the half-way line; or

    • accepting the kick and contesting a line-out at the half-way line.

    (d) If from the kick-off the ball is not kicked ten meters and the ball is not first touched by an opponent of the kicker, the opposition has the choice of:

    the kick-off being taken again; or

    their throw-in to a scrum at the center of the half-way line.

    (e) If from the kick-off the ball is kicked into in-goal, without having touched or been touched by a player, the ball goes directly into in-goal and is then immediately touched down or made dead, or the ball goes into touch-in-goal, the opposition has the choice of:

    the kick-off being taken again; or

    their throw-in to a scrum at the center of the half-way line.

    (f) Following an infringement for:

    off-side; or

    high or late tackle; or

    kicking (i.e fly-hacking) a loose ball on ground near a player who is attempting to gain possession; or

    obstruction,

    the match restarts at the place of infringement with a penalty kick to the non-offending team.

    (g) After any stoppage not covered elsewhere in this Section (e.g. an injury), the match restarts with a scrum to the team moving forward or, if neither team was moving forward, to the team last in possession of the ball.

     

    General Play:

     

    (a) In general play, the ball can only be passed sideways or backwards, defined as ‘towards the player’s own dead-ball line’. If the ball is thrown forward or knocked on, a scrum is awarded to the opponents unless the referee plays advantage to the non-offending team.

    (b) Off-side in general play is penalized in accordance with the IRB Laws of the Game. A player off-side in general play is to be penalized for being off-side unless that player is making an obvious attempt to return to an on-side position. Sanction: Penalty kick.

    (c) If a player carrying the ball goes to ground in general play or if a player goes to ground to gather the ball in general play, the player must immediately do one of three things, or be penalized:

    • get up with the ball; or

    • pass the ball to another player; or

    • release the ball for another player to pick up.

    Note: If a player releases the ball by placing it on the ground and the player’s team-mates drive over the ball to prevent the opposition gaining possession, a ruck will generally be formed, and in this case the ball may not be picked up by hand until the ball has left the ruck, as later described in “Ruck” Section. Sanction: Penalty kick.

     

    Tackling:

     

    A tackle occurs when the ball carrier is held (or wrapped), below the armpit by one or more opponents and is brought to ground.

     

    (a) Players who have the ball and are on their feet (except in a maul) can be tackled.

    Following a tackle:

    • The tackler (and any player assisting in the tackle) must immediately release the tackled player and get up or move away from the tackled player and the ball. It is helpful if the referee calls “Release”.

    • The tackler must get up before playing the ball.

    Dangerous tackle = high, no wrap, “scrag”, pile-driver, these are dangerous and must not be tolerated in any way:

    - Ref should immediately call "penalty", no advantage played

    - Stern warning to offending player, possible yellow or red card especially if multiple offenses by player or team

    Note 1: Any tackle, of fend level with or above the armpit is to be considered high/dangerous play and must be penalized.

    Note 2: Leading with the shoulder, and no attempt to wrap the ball carrier must be considered dangerous play and must be penalized.

    Note 3: The scrag-type tackle (i.e. swinging the player round by the shirt) must be considered dangerous play and must be penalized.

    Note 4: The pile-driver-type tackle (i.e. lifting the ball carrier off the ground and then slamming the ball-carrier to the ground violently) must be considered dangerous play and penalized.

    • The tackled player must immediately pass or release the ball and must get up or move away from the ball. It is helpful if the referee calls “Release”, a second time. The tackled player may put the ball on the ground in any direction, or may push the ball along the ground in any direction except forward (towards the opponents‟ goal line), providing this is done immediately.

    • At a tackle, or near to a tackle, players other than the tackler(s) or tackled player who play the ball must do so from behind the ball and from behind the tackled player, or the tackler closest to those players’ goal line.

    • Any player who first gains possession of the ball at the tackle or near to it may be tackled by an opponent, providing that the opponent does so from behind the ball and from behind the tackled player or tackler nearest that player’s goal line. Sanction: (a), Notes 1 thru 4. Penalty kick.

    (b) If, after a tackle, the ball becomes unplayable, a scrum is awarded. The scrum is awarded to the team that was moving forward immediately prior to the tackle or, if no team was moving forward, to the attacking team (the team in the opponents’ half of the pitch).

    (c) No player shall use the technique known or referred to as “Squeezeball‟ and no person involved in the teaching or coaching of Tackle (Contact) Rugby may teach, coach, or encourage players to use the “Squeezeball‟ technique. Sanction: Penalty kick.

    Note: “Squeezeball' is a technique where the ball carrier goes to ground, head forward (touching or close to the ground), irrespective of immediate contact with opponents, usually keeping parallel to the touch line, holding and protecting the ball close to the chest and, when on the ground, pushes the ball back between the legs.

    (d) It is illegal for any player to voluntarily fall on or over a player lying on the ground with the ball in the players’ possession or to voluntarily fall on or over players lying on the ground with the ball between them, or near them. Sanction: Penalty kick.

    Note: No advantage shall be played. A player is assumed to have fallen voluntarily unless the referee is absolutely certain the fall was accidental. In the very rare instances when the fall is accidental, play must be stopped and a scrum awarded to the team previously in possession. The objective is to remove a dangerous area of play, keep players on their feet and prevent them from falling to the ground. This will create proper rucks and mauls through encouraging players from both teams to remain on their feet.

     

    Maul:

     

    (a) A maul occurs when a player carrying the ball is held by one or more opponents, and one or more of the ball-carrier’s team-mates bind onto the ball-carrier. It is helpful if the referee calls “Maul formed‟. All the players involved are on their feet.

    (b) Once a maul is formed, other players may only join the maul from behind the foot of their hindmost team-mate in the maul. Players joining the maul from in front of this (e.g. from the side) are off-side and should be penalized. Sanction: Penalty kick.

    (c) A maul ends successfully when either the ball or a player with the ball leaves the maul or the ball is on the ground or the maul is on or over the goal line (when the ball may be grounded for a try or touch-down as the case may be).

    (d) A maul ends unsuccessfully if the ball becomes unplayable or the maul collapses (not as a result of foul play), and a ruck may ensue. Should a dangerous situation (i.e. a pile-up) develop, the referee should immediately blow the whistle to stop play, and award a scrum.

    (e) When a maul remains stationary or has stopped moving forward for more than five seconds, but the ball is being moved and the referee can see it, a reasonable time is allowed for the ball to emerge. If it does not emerge within a reasonable time, a scrum is ordered. It is helpful in all maul situations if the referee calls “Use it or lose it” prior to awarding a scrum.

    (f) When a maul has stopped moving forward it may start moving forward again providing it does so within five seconds. If the maul stops moving forward for a second time, and if the ball is being moved and the referee can see it, a reasonable time is allowed for the ball to emerge. A scrum is awarded if it does not emerge within a reasonable time.

    (g) In the case of a scrum following a maul the team not in possession of the ball when the maul began will throw the ball in at the subsequent scrum. If the referee cannot decide which team had possession, the team moving forward before the maul stopped throws in the ball. If neither team was moving forward, the attacking team throws in the ball.

     

    Players shall not pull down or intentionally collapse a maul. All players should remain on their feet, thus preventing a pile-up and possible injury. Players must bind onto the maul with at least one arm around the body of a teammate, using the whole arm. (A one-hand grab is not a bind.)

    - Players must try to stay on their feet, and must not fall or kneel or intentionally collapse a maul.

    - Players may not jump on top of a maul.

    - Players may not drag an opponent out of a maul.

    - Offenses are penalized in most cases with a P.K.

    - Offsides line is behind last foot of each side

    - All other players not part of maul must retire behind offsides line on their side until the maul ends (P.K.)

     

    Rucks:

     

    (a) A ruck occurs where one or more players from each team, who are on their feet, in physical contact, close over the ball on the ground. It is helpful if the referee calls “Ruck formed”.

    Players are rucking when they are in a ruck and using their feet to try to win or keep possession of the ball, without being guilty of foul play. Players must not stand on any part of another player’s body in a ruck - players may not stamp or step on opponents on the ground. Sanction: Penalty kick.

    (b) Once a ruck is formed, other players may only join the ruck from behind the foot of their hindmost team-mate in the ruck (THROUGH THE “GATE”). A player may join alongside this hindmost player. Players joining the ruck from in front of this (e.g. from the side) are off-side and should be penalized. Sanction: Penalty kick.

    (c) Players must not use their hands to pick up the ball while it is still in the ruck. Sanction: Penalty kick.

    (d) A ruck ends successfully when the ball leaves the ruck, or when the ball is on or over the goal line (when the ball may be grounded for a try or touch-down as the case may be).

    (e) A ruck ends unsuccessfully when the ball becomes unplayable and a scrum is awarded. Should a ruck collapse, the referee must immediately blow the whistle to stop play, to prevent a pile-up from developing, and award a scrum.

    (f) Scrum following ruck: The team that was moving forward immediately before the ball became unplayable in the ruck throws in the ball. If neither team was moving forward, or if the referee cannot decide which team was moving forward before the ball became unplayable in the ruck, the team that was moving forward before the ruck began throws in the ball. If neither team was moving forward, then the attacking team throws in the ball. Before the referee blows the whistle for a scrum, the referee allows a reasonable amount of time for the ball to emerge from the ruck. If the ruck stops moving or if the referee decides that the ball will probably not emerge within a reasonable time, the referee must whistle stoppage of play, and order a scrum.

    (g) Players shall not pull down or intentionally collapse a ruck. It is helpful for the coach to teach good technique and the referee to penalize bad technique. All players should remain on their feet, thus preventing a pile-up and possible injury.

    - Players must try to stay on their feet, and must not fall or kneel or intentionally collapse a ruck.

    - Must bind onto the ruck with at least one arm around the body of a teammate, using the whole arm. (A one-hand grab is not a bind.)

    - Players may not jump on top of a ruck.

    - Players may not return the ball into a ruck after it emerges.

    - Offsides line is behind last foot of each side

    - All other players not part of ruck must retire behind offsides line on their side until ruck ends (P.K.)

     

    Scrums:

     

    Restarts play after minor infringement (e.g., knock-on, forward pass, unintentional offsides/obstruction)

    - Non-infringing team puts ball in

    - Restarts play if ball or ball carrier contacts referee resulting in some advantage to team that was last in possession of ball

    - Team last in possession of ball puts it in

     

    (a) The scrum will be made up of at least five (or three) players from each team - the front row (a row of three players, i.e. a prop on either side of the hooker - Hooker must support own weight, not hang on props) and two locks (except when limited to less than 10 a-side) forming the second row. The locks must bind to each other using the inside arm, with the outside arm around the hips (not between the legs) of the front row (props).

    Neither of the locks may unbind to pick up the ball at the rear of the scrum but must remain bound onto the scrum until the ball is carried or passed out by the scrum-half. Sanction: Penalty kick.

    (b) Before starting the engagement procedure the players from each front row will bind together approximately arm's length from their opponents, with the props each binding firmly with one arm around their hooker, and the hooker with arms binding firmly around each prop. In all binds the hands will be at or below the level of the armpit.

    The locks will then bind to each other and to the props - the referee should check that each team’s locks are bound on to the front row before proceeding.

    Each prop will then touch the upper arm of his opponent, and then pause before the engagement. The referee will talk the players through the engagement procedure in the sequence “Crouch, Touch, Pause, and Engage”. On the grounds of safety, it is important that the referee manages the engagement of every scrum in this way. Engagement will have each Front Row player's head interlocked to left of opposite player. There must be no downward pressure exerted by hands or arms.

     

    Scrummaging/Contested Scrums will be progressively introduced throughout the Summer Youth season

     

    (c) Although scrums may be contested in Tackle (Contact) Rugby, under no circumstances is the scrum to be:

    • pulled in any way, or pushed more than 1.5 meters towards either goal line Penalty: A penalty kick at the original place against the team that has pushed or pulled the scrum;

    wheeled more than 45 degrees Sanction: A penalty kick at the original place against the team that intentionally wheeled the scrum

    If a team intentionally wheels a scrum, a penalty kick will be awarded against that team.

    If the scrum is wheeled more than 45 degrees without a penalty kick award, the scrum will be reset with the same team throwing the ball in.

    (d) Front rows must not be allowed to charge at each other.

    If they start to engage too close together and with necks and backs bent, they must be stopped and the scrum reformed. Props’ body positions must be parallel to the touch line (not boring in). There must be no downward pressure exerted by hands or arms. Shoulders must always be above the level of the hips. Players must support their own weight.

    (e) If the scrum collapses, the whistle must immediately be blown and the appropriate penalty awarded, or the scrum reset.

    If a player is persistently involved in collapsing or illegal binding they must be replaced. If a player‟s lack of technique or strength is a danger then they must be replaced.

    (f) A non-contested scrum must replace a contested scrum in any of the following circumstances (on safety grounds):

    if a player in a scrum has to be replaced and there is no adequate replacement;

    if players involved in a scrum have not been properly trained;

    if one team is obviously stronger and more experienced than the other and the referee has been unable to get the stronger team to reduce their push to take this into account.

    In a non-contested scrum the teams do not contest for the ball. The team putting the ball in must win it. Neither team is allowed to push the other team away from the mark.

    (g) Any player at any stage in a scrum who has or causes an opponent to have the shoulders lower than the hip joint must immediately be penalized by awarding a penalty kick. The object of this rule is to prevent the collapse of a scrum. It is helpful for the coach to teach good technique and the referee to penalize bad technique. Any player who has the shoulders lower than the hip joint can only move downwards unless the player has very great strength. The force through the shoulders should be directed forwards and upwards; all players should remain on their feet, thus preventing a pile-up and possible injury.

    (h) The back lines of both teams must remain behind a line five meters behind the hindmost foot of their respective scrums until the ball emerges

    Scrum ends when ball is out

    - Ball heeled out of scrum

    - Scrumhalf removes it

    - Offsides lines disappear when ball is out

    The Scrum-half may touch the ball with either, or both hands to pull it out of the Scrum. The Scrum is over therefore ball is "out" as the ball emerges (as above), to include while the Scrum-half initiates a pass.

    If a scrum is awarded within five meters of the goal line, the scrum is to be taken at a mark such that the middle line of the scrum is five meters from the goal line. In this case the defending backs must stay on or behind the goal line.

    (i) The scrum-half not throwing the ball into the scrum may remain directly alongside that player’s opponent, and must not move beyond the middle line of the scrum until the ball has emerged from the scrum or an opponent has played the ball from the Scrum.

    In the event of a strike against the head (the team putting the ball in losing the ball in the scrum), the scrum-half who has thrown the ball into the scrum is similarly restricted.

    If either scrum-half moves from a position close the scrum, then the scrum-half must retire behind the same offside line as that for the backs.

    ELV Ruling 4 - Superseding ELV Ruling 2): Both scrum halves must take up a position on the same side of the scrum as the scrum half throwing in the ball (the scrum half not throwing in the ball may be positioned behind the offside line for the non-participants and must stay there until the scrum is over).

    • After the ball has been won the scrum half of the team who has not won the ball who was positioned next to the player throwing in the ball can do one of two things:

    - Follow the ball whilst remaining on side

    - go directly back to the hindmost foot in the scrum and then take up a position anywhere in the Field of Play behind this offside line.

    (j) Referees should pay particular attention to ensure that the scrum-half throwing the ball into the scrum is not “feeding”. The scrum-half must hold the ball with both hands, with its major axis parallel to the ground/the touch line, midway between knees and ankles. The scrum-half must release the ball from outside the tunnel so that it lands mid-way between the two front rows and beyond the width of the nearer prop’s shoulders.

    (k) In the interests of player safety, where a penalty is awarded for an infringement during a scrum, the penalty kick may not be taken quickly and players must wait until the referee signals that the kick may be taken.

     

    Lineouts:

     

    “In Touch” (out of bounds is when):

    - Sidelines are the touch lines

    - Out of bounds => In touch

    - Touch line is in touch

    - Ball crossed vertical plane of touch line and touched ground or other object beyond touch line

    - Ball carrier touches touch line or ground beyond => in touch

     

    Lineouts:

    - Thrower stands in touch at the mark of touch where ball went out.

    - The line of touch runs perpendicular to touch line at mark of touch.

    - Jumpers from each team stand across tunnel from each other with 1 meter spacing between them, and between 5 and 15 meters in field of play. The front of the lineout must be at least 5 meters from touch line.

     

    (a) If the ball or player carrying the ball goes out of play, a contested line-out will take place.

    If a line-out is awarded within five meters of the goal line, the line-out is to be taken at a mark five meters out from the goal line. The opponents of the team who carried or last touched the ball before it went into touch throw the ball in. A quick throw-in is permitted.

    (b) The line-out will be made up of two players from each team (who stand between 5 and 15 meters from the touch line) plus the player throwing the ball in and an immediate opponent (who must stand within two meters of the player throwing the ball in) and one player from each team in a position to receive the ball (i.e. scrum-half). The receiver may move into the lineout prior to the throw and perform any of the actions available to any other player in the lineout. Both the thrower and the immediate opponent are able to take an active role in the line-out as soon as the ball has been touched by one of the players in the line-out. The team throwing the ball into the line-out sets the number of players in the line-out (no more than a maximum of four). The defending team may have no more players in the line-out than what is established by the team throwing in, but may have fewer. Players not taking part in the line-out must stay behind the off-side line until the line-out ends.

    (c) The off-side line for all players not participating in the line-out (all players other than those described in this Section) is ten meters back from the line-of-touch, parallel to the goal line, and they must remain behind that off-side line until the line-out has ended. If the line-out is closer than ten meters to the touch line, the goal line is the off-side line.

    (d) The line-out will extend from five to fifteen meters from the touch line.

    (e) The line-out begins when the ball leaves the hands of the player throwing it in. The line-out ends when the ball or a player carrying it leaves the line-out. This includes the following:

    when the ball is thrown or knocked out of the line-out;

    • when a line-out player hands the ball to a player who is peeling close to and parallel to the line;

    Note: “Peeling” occurs when a player leaves the line-out (after the ball has been thrown in) to catch the ball knocked or passed back by a team-mate, or to take the ball from a team-mate who has caught and held it. All “peeling off‟ movements must be close to and parallel with the line-out. Players must keep moving.

    Any jumper may go for ball after it’s thrown

    - Go for ball, not opposition (Sanction: Penalty kick)

    - Ball must go at least 5 meters (Sanction: Free kick)

    - Not straight => defenders’ choice of scrum or another lineout, their put-in

    when a ruck or maul develops in a line-out, and both feet of all the players in the ruck or maul move beyond the line-of-touch; and

    the ball has been passed or carried out of the line-out or if the catcher decides to drive through the line-out.

    (f) When the ball becomes unplayable in a line-out, play restarts with a scrum to the team moving forward or, if neither team was moving forward, to the team last in possession of the ball. The scrum will take place fifteen meters in from the touch line opposite the point where the line-out took place.

    (g) Lifting/supporting is allowed at this level (i.e. a player may bind to a jumper until they return to the ground). The player designated to receive the ball (i.e. the scrum-half) may enter the line-out to compete for the ball. Referee ensures that Jumpers do not jump too soon.

     

    Kicking:

     

    (a) All the IRB Laws of the Game pertaining to kicking in open play will apply, with the following exceptions:

    • Players may only kick the ball out of their hands when in congested/crowded space. In the open, the ball may be kicked from/along the ground (“dribbled”, or grubber kick).

    • On a kick, the off-side line is ten meters from the place of the kick. The kicker’s team-mates must either be behind the kicker or behind a line ten meters in front of the receiving opponent (or the place where the ball will land) or they are off-side.

    • Kicking a loose ball when it is on the ground in congested/crowded space (often called fly hacking) is not permitted – this includes a front row player kicking a ball out of the scrum. Sanction: Penalty kick.

    (b) Kicking in open play to gain field position by a “kick for touch” may be attempted, and are contingent upon from where the kicker makes the kick relative to the “22” meter line.

     

    Note: "22" is defined as a line 22m (or a proportional distance based upon the dimensions of the field) out and parallel from the Try line.

    - If a player is outside his/her 22 and:

    - Kicks ball in touch on the full, then line out in line to kick location

    - Kick bounces before in touch, the in line to where ball crossed touch line

    - If a player is inside 22, then in line where ball crossed touch line

    - Same if penalty kick (except for penalty kick, opposition throws in)

    (c) After a try has been scored, the team can attempt to convert the try with a goal. The kick at goal may be by a place kick or a drop-kick.

    (d) If posts are located on the dead-ball line (rear of the try zone/In-goal area), than the attempt for a conversion may anywhere from the dead-ball line through point where the try was scored and perpendicular to the try-line. The defending team shall retire behind the dead-ball in order to charge/contest the conversion attempt, if the try-line is in front of the posts.

    (e) When an infringement occurs, a penalty or Penalty/Free kick will be awarded in accordance with the IRB Laws of the Game. The referee will make a mark for the kick.

    Kick can be in any direction

    - Teammates of kickers must put themselves onsides, behind the kicker as soon as possible

    - If offsides, no penalty unless teammates take part in play before getting back on-sides

    The opposition will retire quickly to ten meters from the mark.

    Never closer than 5 meters from opponents‟ goal line

    - Scrum is an option at the mark

    - Kick taken from the mark, must be a clear kick

    - Foot must propel/move the ball from the hand or mark

    - Bouncing on the knee is not a kick

    - Kick can be in any direction

    - Free kick – opponents may charge forward as kicker starts to move to kick

    If the kick is taken so quickly that opponents have no opportunity to retire, they will not be penalized for this. However, they must continue to retire without interfering with the game until they are either ten meters from the mark or a team-mate who was standing ten meters from the mark has run in front of them. The opposing team must not do anything to delay the penalty kick or obstruct the kicker. Any infringement by the opposing team results in a second penalty ten meters in front of the mark for the first kick. On the second occasion the kick will not be taken until all opponents have retired ten meters. No penalty can be taken within 5 meters of the goal line.

    (f) Following the award of a penalty, a kick at goal or drop-goal is permitted. Should the team awarded the penalty opt to kick to touch and do so directly they will be awarded the subsequent throw-in at the line-out.

    (g) Drop-goals are permitted, in Open play.

     

    Mark:

     

    Same in touch and tackle games, though not used much by kids.

    - Player making the mark must be behind his 22-meter line, including within his in-goal.

    - Player must make a clean catch directly from opponent‟s kick (excluding a kick off or restart kick) while calling “mark.”

    - Referee awards a free kick at the spot of the mark. The player who called the mark must take the free kick.

     

    In-goal area:

     

    In the “in-goal” area :

    - There are offsides, knock-ons, obstruction

    - There are no rucks, mauls, scrums, line-outs

    - Ball carrier must touch ball to ground in in-goal

    - With tries and touch-downs, ball must be grounded

    (a) The in-goal area includes the goal line (i.e. the try-line), and the base of goalpost pads in contact with ground is in-goal. A try counts if touched down against base of pads but not the touch-in-goal line, the dead-ball line or the corner posts.

    (b) If the attacking team grounds the ball in in-goal without having committed an infringement then a try is awarded. A ball is grounded by applying downward pressure by hand, arm, or chest when the ball in contact with the ground. Attacking teams score tries.

    (c) If the attacking team is unable to ground the ball for a try because the ball is not in contact with the ground (e.g. a hand or body is in between) or the attacking player is unable to apply downward pressure, a scrum is awarded to the attacking team on a line five meters out from the goal line.

    (d) If the defending team grounds the ball in in-goal, or the ball becomes dead by going or being carried into touch then: Defense makes touch-downs.

    • If the attacking team carried the ball into in-goal or last touched the ball before it went into in-goal, a drop-out is awarded to the defending team on a line 22 meters out from the goal line: 22 Drop-out

    • If attacker kicks ball thru in-goal & out of playing area, without defender making contact…

    - Defenders’ choice of 22 drop out or scrum where ball was kicked

    - Restarts at 22m line / “22 Drop Out”

    - Drop kick from anywhere behind the 22, must cross 22

    - Kicker’s teammates must be behind kicker

    - Opposition may not prevent the kick from crossing 22

    • If kick goes directly into touch or does not cross 22

    - Scrum at 22 to opposition, or

    - Another drop-out, or

    - Line-out where ball went into touch to opposition

    • If the defending team carried the ball into in-goal or last touched the ball before it went into in-goal, a scrum is awarded to the attacking team on a line five meters out from the goal line

    • Referee must see the grounding in “in-goal” area

    - To ensure that it is performed correctly

    - To determine which team performed the grounding

    • If referee cannot determine team who grounded ball

    - 5-meter scrum to attacking team

    • If ball carrier is tackled while attempting to ground ball, but referee cannot determine whether grounding was successful, then ball in considered held up

    - 5-meter scrum for attacking team

    • If knock-on in-goal by either team

    - 5-meter scrum in line where knock-on occurs to non-infringing team

    For a quick primer on what rugby is all about, please visit USA Rugby's page here
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